Background: Bio-dykes are a Nature-Based Solution (NBS) to flood risk management (FRM). They combine biological, mechanical, and ecological concepts to stabilise slopes of river banks susceptible to flood-driven erosion; a typical bio- dyke consists of sand bags and bamboo poles to provide early solidity, alongside indigenous plants that provide longer term stability1. In comparison to traditional “grey” infrastructure (e.g. levees), bio-dykes are generally considered to be more cost effective and deliver a wider range of ancillary (social, economic and environmental) benefits2. Whilst they are increasingly recognised as potential options for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, the general lack of design guidance for bio-dykes, and more generally NB

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